Marco polo kublai khan

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Marco Polo
Marco Polo an Tatar attire.

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The Granger Collection, neu York

From Acre die travelers proceeded zu Ayas (“Laiazzo” bei Marco’s writings, jetzt Yumurtalik, on the Gulf of İskenderun, deshalb called die Gulf of Alexandretta, in southeastern Turkey). During the early part von 1272, they more than likely passed through Erzurum, an what zu sein now eastern Turkey, und Tabrīz, in what ist now northern Iran, later crossing unwelcoming deserts infested with brigands prior to reaching Hormuz on ns Persian Gulf. There ns Polos decided not to danger a sea passage to India und beyond but kommen sie proceed overland to die Mongol capital.

They following traveled with deserts des “surpassing aridity” toward ns Khorasan region in what is now eastern Iran. Turning gradually to ns northeast, they reached much more hospitable lands; Badakhshān (“Balascian”), in Afghanistan, an particular, pleased the travelers. Marco suggests the they remained there for a year; detained, perhaps, von illness (possibly malaria) that was cured über the bright climate des the district. The is also believed that marco visited territories to the south (other parts des Afghanistan, Kafiristan an the Hindu Kush, Chitral in what zu sein now Pakistan, und perhaps Kashmir) during this period. The is, however, difficult to establish i m sorry districts the traversed und which he may schutz described from information gathered en route.

Leaving Badakhshān, the Polos behavior toward the Pamirs, but die route lock followed zu cross these main Asian highlands continues to be uncertain. Descending on the northeastern side von the chain, they reached Kashi (“Cascar”) in what is now the Uygur Autonomous region of Xinjiang, China. Von this point ns Polos were on the taste Silk Road, and they probably followed along die oases to die south und east of the Takla Makan Desert—Yarkant (“Yarcan”), Hotan (“Cotan”), Che’erchen (“Ciarcian”), und Lop anzeigen (Lop Lake). This stepping-stones led to Shazhou (“Saciu”) on die borders des China, a place now called Dunhuang.

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Marco Polo, his uncle, and his dad presenting the pope"s letter at the court von Kublai Khan, einzelheiten of in illuminated manuscript; in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, England.